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  • Anxiety

    Anxiety is your body’s instinctive reaction to stress. It is a feeling of doubt or fear about what’s to come. Examples include going to a job interview, the first day of school, or giving a speech. These may cause most people to feel nervous and fearful. What Is an Anxiety Disorder? It is natural that you are nervous when you start a new career, move to a new location or test yourself. Even if it is disagreeable, it can encourage you to do a better job and work harder. Normal anxiety is an feeling, but should not interfere with the daily life. But you may still feel uncomfortable or upset in the event of an anxiety condition. It’s strong and weakening at times. You can avoid doing activities you love by anxiety disorders. In advance cases, it may stop you from crossing the street, entering an elevator, or even going outdoors. If not treated, the anxiety will continue getting worse. Disorders of anxiety are the standard emotional condition, which can affect anyone, at any age. Men are less likely to be Diagnosed with Anxiety Illness than women, according to the American Psychiatric Association. What Are the Various Types of Anxiety Disorders? Anxiety disorder can include several different conditions: Panic Disorder You feel that anxiety strikes you at random. During a panic disorder, you may have chest pain, sweat, and also feel palpitations (unusually irregular or strong heartbeats). Sometimes you may feel like a heart attack or chock. Social Anxiety Disorder Social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, happens whenever you feel anxious about social interactions in daily life or self-consciousness. You only think about people who judge you or insult or .embarrass you. Specific Phobias You feel intense fear of a social situation or specific objects, such as flying or heights. The fear is above normal and could lead to normal scenarios being avoided. Generalized Anxiety Disorder For little or no cause, you feel unreal, excessive tension and concern. Obsessive-compulsive disorder Continuous illogical feelings that make you conduct such behavioral activities. Separation Anxiety Disorder This is the fear of being away from your loved ones or home. Illness Anxiety Disorder Formerly known as hypochondria, this is the anxiety about your health. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) PTSD is the anxiety of your lives that you feel after a stressful experience. What are the Symptoms of Anxiety? Symptoms of anxiety rely on the person. From a beating heart to butterflies in your stomach, your emotions will vary. You might feel like your head spinning as if there’s a disconnect between your body and mind. You may also experience anxiety through panic attacks, nightmares, memories that you can’t control or painful thoughts. And, you may feel worried and afraid, or you may be afraid of social gatherings or even a particular venue. Caption: A man not able to sleep due to anxiety Credits: Sound Sleep Health Generally, symptoms of anxiety include: increased heart rate rapid breathing restlessness trouble concentrating difficulty falling asleep Your anxiety symptoms might be completely different from someone else’s. Therefore, it’s crucial to know all the methods anxiety can present itself in. What is an Anxiety Attack? An attack of fear is a subset of anxiety. It’s a sense of overwhelming concern, fear, anxiety or frustration. For several people, an anxiety attack grows slowly. It may worsen with a stressful event approaching. An anxiety attack and a panic attack have some common symptoms; however, they aren’t the same. Anxiety attacks symptoms may differ among people and can also vary greatly. This is that not everyone has many signs of anxiety, which can differ with time. Caption: A feel of dizziness Credits: Pixabay Typical symptoms of an anxiety attack are: feeling faint or dizzy shortness of breath dry mouth sweating chills or hot flashes apprehension and worry restlessness distress fear numbness or tingling What Causes Anxiety? Scientists are not able to determine the definite cause of anxiety. However a mixture of causes is more likely to occur. There may be environmental, genetic and brain chemistry influences. Furthermore, researchers believe that the regions of the brain that manage anxiety may be affected. Present studies of anxiety are further taking a look at the sections of the brain that involve anxiety. Testing for Anxiety There should be no anxiety diagnosis with just one test. Instead, the management of anxiety requires a longer period of mental health assessments, psychiatric and physical tests. Doctors might conduct a physical exam, like urine or blood tests to rule out basic medical conditions that can contribute to the symptoms you’re experiencing. In addition, various levels of anxiety and measures are used to evaluate the level of anxiety. Your doctor can use one or more of the above tests to evaluate your anxiety level. Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale The Zung anxiety measure normally consists of a 20-point questionnaire. You have to score your anxiety on issues such as nervousness between “a little time” and “much of the time” like: nervousness anxiety shaking rapid heartbeat fainting frequent urination nightmares Once you finish this test, an experienced professional will assess your responses. Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A) The Hamilton Anxiety Test was established in 1959 and is one of the first anxiety rating scales. It is also often used in clinical and testing settings. A well-validated and widely used scale to measure the amount of anxiety in a patient is a Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A). It should always be administered by a professional doctor. Caption: Effect of therapy on Hamilton Anxiety Rating (HAM-A) scale Credits: Research Gate Instead of a screening or diagnostic procedure, HAM-A has a key role to assess the respondent to therapy. By governing the scale serially, a doctor can note down the results of psychotherapy or drug treatment. The HAM-A includes 14 issues, which measure fears, moods, tension, spiritual, physical and behavioural traits. Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) The Beck scale of anxiety aims to assess the anxiety levels. The evaluation can be done by yourself. Alternatively, it can also be dictated by a professional or paraprofessional person. The assessment consists of 21 questionnaires based on your symptom history over the last week. The symptoms can be numbness, tingling, and fear. Answer options are ‘mildly,’ ‘moderately,’ ‘not at all,’ or ‘severely.’ Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale This seven-question test is used as a screening for generalized anxiety disorder. You will be asked how often in the past few weeks you’ve been experiencing feelings of nervousness, irritability, or fear. Response choices include ‘few days’ ‘not at all’ or ‘nearly every day.’ Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) The SPIN is an assessment of your social phobia by 17 questions. You calculate the fear from zero to four on the basis of different social events. Here, zero indicates no anxiety and four indicates extreme anxiety. Penn State Worry Questionnaire This test is the most often used stress measure. It can be used to differentiate between generalized anxiety and social anxiety. The questionnaire uses 16 questions to assess the excess, generality and uncontrollability of your tension. Anxiety Chest Pain Chest pain is a typical symptom of panic attacks and anxiety. Several people say that it is a notable symptom of their worst experiences. Sometimes these painful, uncomfortable, and frightening symptoms are those of anxiety. Symptoms Chest pain related to anxiety is different for each individual. Some people may feel chest pain on a steady basis. For others, chest pain can be unexpected and sudden. Anxiety chest pain can be defined by: sharp, shooting pain persistent chest aching a spasm in your chest or a sudden muscle twitch numbness, burning, or a dull ache stabbing pressure tightness or chest tension What are the Treatments for Anxiety? Medical treatment isn’t always necessary for anxiety. Lifestyle changes can be enough for certain patients to handle the symptoms. However, in moderate or severe cases, treatment can help you overpower the symptoms and lead a more convenient daily life. Anxiety treatment can be categorized into medication and psychotherapy. Meeting with a psychologist or a therapist can help you learn tools to implement and strategies to handle anxiety when it occurs. Medications commonly used to treat anxiety include sedatives and antidepressants. They work to avoid depressive attacks, to stabilize brain chemistry and to eliminate the more serious disease signs. You should analyze medication options with the aid of an experienced psychiatrist after the fear has been diagnosed. What Natural Remedies are Used for Anxiety? Lifestyle alterations could be an efficient way to relieve some of the anxiety and stress you may experience every day. Most of the natural “remedies” require taking part in healthy activities, caring for your body, and getting rid of unhealthy habits. These include: getting enough sleep meditating exercising and staying active eating a healthy diet avoiding alcohol and caffeine quitting smoking cigarettes These lifestyle changes are a positive and efficient way to help you reduce your anxiety. Yoga for Anxiety Disorder Caption: A girl do a stretching yoga pose Credits: Pixabay There are several uncomfortable physical symptoms of anxiety and panic, such as tightness, pain sensitivity and feelings of tension. Yoga postures or asanas can help relieve anxiety-related physical pain. Yoga works to balance, lengthen, and stretch the muscles. These asanas can help in easing the stiffness and built-up muscle tension in the entire body. If you learn in the right way, yoga poses can be a strong physical workout. Exercise can help reduce anxiety illness in many areas, including depression and pain relief. Yoga not only allows the physical body to relax, it also helps with anxiety. Frequent concern and depressive thought habits are characteristic of an anxiety disorder diagnosed. Visualization, meditation, and focus on breathing focus can help with letting go of fear and worry. The overall practice of yoga can evoke the relaxation response for the body, allowing both the mind and body to obtain a sense of calmness. Yoga can also be a perfect way to be closer to the friends and meet others. Several people with agoraphobia and panic disorder experience issues of isolation and loneliness. Going for yoga classes can be one way to start socializing while working towards your wellness. How to Help Teenagers with Anxiety? College visits, tests, and first dates and many other events worry teenagers. They therefore have many reasons to worry. Youth with signs of fear or anxiety will however develop an anxiety condition also. Styles, nervousness, avoidance and isolationist behaviors are the symptoms of anxiety. Further, anxiety in teenagers may lead to unusual behaviours. They may perform poorly in tests, act out, avoid social events, and even engage in drug and alcohol use. For some teenagers, anxiety might lead to depression. Diagnosing both these conditions is crucial so that treatment can deliver to the underlying issues and help ease symptoms. The most typical treatments for anxiety in teens are medication and talk therapy. These treatments can also be used to ease depression symptoms. Can Food Treat Anxiety? Usually, talk therapy and medication are used to treat depression and anxiety. But, lifestyle changes, like regular exercise and getting enough sleep, can also help. Also, Harvard research suggests that food items that you eat can have a beneficial impact on your body and brain if you frequently experience anxiety. These foods include: salmon chamomile turmeric dark chocolate yoghurt green tea Conclusion A psychotherapy, medicines or a combination of the two should be used to treat anxiety. Nevertheless, few people with slight anxiety or avoidance of something that can be stopped want to deal with it and do not seek therapy. It is important to recognize that even in advanced stages, anxiety disorders may be treated. Even if you continue to experience anxiety disorders, you can always learn ways to manage it and live a healthy and happy life.

  • Cancer

    Cancer is the rapid growth of abnormal cells in parts of the body. These abnormal cells are called malignant cells, cancer cells, or tumour cells. Cancer cells can penetrate normal body tissues. Several cancers and the abnormal cells that form the cancer tissue are determined by the name of the tissue that the abnormal cells originated from. Cancer is not bound to humans; other living organisms like animals can also get cancer. Usually, cancer cells break away from the original group of cells, move through the lymph and blood systems, and stay in other organs where they can again repeat the rapid growth cycle. This process of malignant cells abandoning an area and growing in another body area is called metastatic spread or metastasis. Cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer depend on factors like the type of cancer, location, and where the cancer cells might have spread. Some cancer patients show no signs or symptoms until the cancer is far advanced. The American Cancer Society describes seven warning signs to identify cancer in a body, and which should hint a person to seek medical attention. The word CAUTION can help you remember these. · Change in bladder or bowel habits · A sore throat that doesn’t heal · Unusual discharge or bleeding · Thickening or lump in areas like the breast, testicles · Difficulty swallowing and indigestion (usually chronic) · A noticeable change in the colour, size, shape, or thickness of a mole · Hoarseness or nagging cough Other symptoms that may also alert you or your doctor to the possibility of you having cancer include: · Unexplained loss of appetite or weight · Pain in the bones or other parts of the body that may worsen · Persistent nausea, fatigue, or vomiting · Unexplained fevers with may be persistent · Persistent infections which will not clear with usual treatment Anyone with these symptoms should consult their doctor. However, these symptoms can also appear due to noncancerous conditions. Types of Cancer There are more than 150 types of cancer. However, the National Cancer Institute lists several general categories. They include: Spinal Cord Cancer Primary spinal cancer grows from cells within the spinal cord or its surrounding parts (the tissues, bones, nerves or fluid of the spine). The spinal cord is a part of the central nervous system (CNS). It is a column of nerve tissue that starts from the base of the brain down the back. It is enclosed by a few protective membranes and is surrounded by the vertebrae. The spinal cord transfers crucial messages between the brain and the rest of the body. Heart Cancer Primary heart tumours and abnormal cell growth in your heart and are very rare. Based on the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) study, they found in less than 1 out of every 2000 bodies. Primary heart tumours can be either cancerous or noncancerous. Cancerous tumours grow into nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body, but noncancerous tumours don’t. Caption: Smoking has an adverse effect on the heart Credits: Pixabay Most primary heart tumours are noncancerous. The ESC reports that only 25 per cent are malignant. Terminal Cancer Terminal cancer is a type of cancer that can’t be treated or cured. It’s also called end-stage cancer. Several types of cancer can become terminal cancer. However, terminal cancer is different from advanced cancer. Advanced cancer isn’t curable. However, it does respond to treatment, which can slow down its progression. Terminal cancer doesn’t respond to treatment. So, tending to someone with terminal cancer is the best solution. Tonsil Cancer Tonsil cancer is a form of oropharyngeal cancer. It affects the mouth and throat. Tonsil cancer begins when tumour cells form in the tonsils. It can develop in people who have had their tonsils removed because some tonsil tissue often remains after surgery. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and having Human papillomavirus (HPV) increases the risk. Intestinal Cancer Intestinal cancer begins when tumour cells form in the small intestine. When cancer cells develop in the large intestine (the large colon), it is known as colorectal cancer. Tumours in the small intestine can block the flow of food and thus affects digestion. As the tumour gets bigger, the blockages can lead to pain in the abdomen. Breast Cancer Caption: The pink ribbon is an international symbol of breast cancer awareness. Credits: Pixabay Breast cancer forms in either the ducts or the lobules of the breast. Lobules are the glands that generate milk, and ducts are the pathways that transfer the milk from the glands to the nipple. Cancer can also occur in the fibrous connective tissue or the fatty tissue within a breast. The uncontrolled cancer cells often penetrate other healthy breast tissues and can also travel to the lymph nodes below the arms. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Indian women and accounts for 26% of all cancers in women. Approximately 1 in 28 women are likely to get breast cancer during their lifetime. Peritoneal Cancer Peritoneal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It forms in the thin layer of epithelial cells that are present in the inner wall of the abdomen. This layer is called the peritoneum. The peritoneum covers and protects the organs in your abdomen, like the bladder, intestines, uterus and rectum. The peritoneum also creates a lubricating fluid that facilitates the organs to move easily inside the abdomen. As its symptoms most often go undetected, peritoneal cancer is usually diagnosed at a late stage. Bone Cancer Bone cancer forms when an abnormal mass of tissue or tumour forms in a bone. A tumour can be malignant, which means it may grow aggressively and spread to other parts of the body. A malignant tumour is often cited as cancerous. Bone cancer is rare. Bone cancer treatment depends on your age, your overall health, the stage of cancer, the size and location of the tumour. Cancer Blood Tests Cancer blood tests and other laboratory tests can help diagnose cancer. Caption: Blood tests can give clues about what’s going on inside your body. Credits: Pixabay Examples of blood tests include: Complete Blood Count (CBC) This common blood test checks the number of various types of blood cells in a sample of your blood. Blood cancers can be detected using this test if too few or too many a type of blood cell or abnormal cells are found. A bone marrow biopsy can help confirm blood cancer. Blood Protein Testing Electrophoresis, a test to determine various proteins in your blood can help in detecting certain abnormal immune system proteins that are sometimes found in people with multiple myeloma. Other tests, like a bone marrow biopsy, are used to further confirm a diagnosis. Tumour Marker Tests Tumour markers are chemicals generated by cancer cells that can be found in your blood. Cancer Treatment Breakthroughs in research have fueled the development of new medications and treatment options. Treatments are usually based on the type of cancer, the diagnosis stage, and the person’s overall health. Examples of cancer treatment include: Chemotherapy can kill cancerous cells with medications that target rapidly forming cells. The drugs can also help reduce tumours, however, the side effects can be severe. Hormone therapy involves taking medications that alter how specific hormones work or interfere with the body’s ability to create them. When hormones play an important role, as with breast and prostate cancers, this is a typical approach. Immunotherapy uses medications to strengthen the immune system and boost it to fight cancerous cells. Examples of these treatments include adoptive cell transfer and checkpoint inhibitors. Radiation therapy employs high-dose radiation to eliminate cancerous cells. Radiation can shrink a tumour before surgery or reduce the related symptoms. Stem cell transplant is beneficial for people with blood-related cancers, like lymphoma or leukaemia. Caption: Stem cell transplants are commonly used to treat lymphoma and leukemia. Credits: Pixabay It involves removing white and red blood cells that survived radiation or chemotherapy. These cells are then strengthened and put back into the body. Surgery is usually a part of treatment when a person has a cancerous tumour. It involves removing the lymph nodes to prevent or reduce the disease’s spread. Specific therapies execute functions within cancerous cells to prevent them from dividing. They can also strengthen the immune system. Examples of these therapies include monoclonal antibodies and small-molecule drugs. Indian Cancer Society Indian Cancer Society (ICS) is a non-profit, non-government, national organization for detection, awareness, and providing treatment for cancer patients in India. It is linked with Tata Memorial Hospital, which is one of the best cancer hospitals in India providing treatment and rehabilitation programs for cancer patients. They also perform research and publish data on types of cancer patients in India. Many noted personalities, charitable and corporate trust like Sir Ratan Tata Trust, Pirojsha Godrej Foundation, and A. H. Wadia Trust are linked with the organization to fund its activities. Conclusion Lifestyle choices and genetic factors, like smoking, may contribute to the development of cancer. Multiple factors affect the ways that DNA communicates with cells and controls their division and death. Cancer treatments are rapidly improving. Also, enhancements in cancer detection, increased awareness of the risks of smoking, and a decrease in tobacco use have all contributed to a decrease in the number of cancer diagnoses and deaths. When an individual has cancer, the outlook depends on whether the disease has spread and also on its type, location and severity.

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