Acute Tubular Necrosis
The kidneys are an important organ of the body that performs various essential functions like maintaining overall fluid balance in the body, regulating and filtering minerals from the blood, and filtering waste materials from food, medications, and toxic substances.
When your kidneys fail to function, it could be due to a couple of complications and necrosis is one of them.
Necrosis is the death of a cell in an organ or tissue due to the following reasons:
Infectious pathogens like bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites
Oxygen deprivation or hypoxia
Environmental triggers like extreme heat, radiation, or UB rays exposure or even trauma.
There are also several types of necrosis that target or affect the kidneys. They include:
Acute tubular necrosis
What is Acute Tubular Necrosis?
Your kidneys are made of nephrons that have structural and functional properties in the kidneys.
Each nephron can be divided into the following parts:
The Bowman’s capsule
Proximal convoluted tubule
Loop of Henle
Distal convoluted tubule
Nephron structure, Image credits: Wikimedia commons
The convoluted tubules perform the following functions:
Proximal convoluted tubule Reabsorbs ions, water nutrients, removes toxins, and adjust the PH.
Distal convoluted tubule Selectively secretes and absorbs different ions to maintain blood ph and electrolyte balance.
Acute tubular necrosis is a type of kidney injury that causes damage to the kidney tubule cells and as a result, it will compromise the essential functions mentioned above.
They are commonly caused by the following:
Low blood flow to the kidneys
Low blood pressure
Excessive and harmful drugs that damage the kidneys like X-ray contrast dye, anesthesia drugs, and antibiotics
Severe bodywide infections.
Excessive blood loss during surgery or trauma
Symptoms of Acute Tubular Necrosis
Low urine output.
Confusion or disorientation
Bloating as a symptom, Image credits: pixabay
What are the changes that take place in the Tubule Cells?
The following changes in the cell take place due to Necrosis:
Increase in cell volume
Loss of plasma membrane integrity
Leakage of cellular contents
Cell lysis occurs
Random degradation of DNA
Acute tubular necrosis damages the structures of the tubules and commonly causes kidney failure. When this happens, the electrolytes and fluid in the body increases to unsafe levels and can be extremely fatal to the human body.