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  • Writer's pictureShruti GOCHHWAL

6 Rare Cancers You Probably Didn’t Know About


Research suggests that there are more than 200 different types of cancer out of which nearly 22% are classified as rare. Here are some of them:

Different types of Rare cancers

The list of 6 most rare cancers includes sarcoma, thyroid cancer, neuroendocrine cancer, bone tumours, lymphoma, and paediatric cancers.

1.   Bone Sarcoma:

Bone sarcoma or osteosarcoma accounts for 0.2% of all cancers in India and less than 10 lakh cases per year.  It is a type of bone cancer where the cells in the bones divide abnormally to give rise to cancer. It accounts for the third most common cause of mortality in adolescents.

However, with recent advancements and multimodality management, these tumours have led to an increase in their 5-year survival rates.1.

2.   Thyroid Cancer:

Thyroid Cance

Thyroid Cancer, Credits: pixabay

Thyroid cancer is another rare cancer disease that affects the cells of the thyroid. The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland which is located at the base of your neck. The thyroid gland regulates the release of various hormones and the body’s metabolism.

Even though the rate of thyroid cancer in India remains low. Over the decade, the thyroid cancer rates have increased from 2.4 to 3.9 in women, whereas, in men, the incidence rate has increased from 0.9 to 1.3 %.2.

3.  Neuroendocrine Cancer

Neuroendocrine Cancer

Neuroendocrine Cancer, Credits: pixabay

Carcinoid or neuroendocrine neoplasms is a rare cancer group in India that has found to be affecting less than 5 in 100,000 people each year.3. The neuroendocrine tumour affects the neuroendocrine system and may take several years before symptoms appear.

The cancer cells in a neuroendocrine tumour may spread throughout body organs such as bowel, lung, stomach and pancreas.

4.    Brain Cancer

Brain Cancer

Cancer growth in Brain, Credits: pixabay

The occurrence of brain cancer in India is found to be extremely rare. The data suggests that only two or three out of 1 lakh people are affected by brain cancers in India which accounts for less than 2% of all malignancies diagnosed. Brain cancers result when cancer cells spread to your brain from other parts of the body.

5.   Lymphoma


Lymphoma, Credits: pixabay

Lymphoma is a common haematological malignancy which occurs due to the abnormal growth of lymphocytes. The incidence rates for lymphoma in men and women were found to be 1.5 and 2.9 % per one lac persons.4.

6.   Paediatric Cancer

Pediatric Cancer

Pediatric Cancer, Credits: pixabay

Although cancers are found to be rare in children, it is an important cause of death among them. The data suggests that 150 out of every million children in India get diagnosed with cancer. The most common malignancies in children are found to be Leukaemia and lymphoma whereas, bone tumours, neuroblastoma, and nephroblastoma are rare and less frequent.

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